The Ethernet is both a data link (Layer 2 of OSI Model) and physical layer(Layer 1 of OSI Model) main component for local area networks (LANs). Bob Metcalfe and D.R. Boggs invented this in 1972.Ethernet is a network protocol that controls how data is transmitted over a LAN. Technically it is referred to as the IEEE 802.3 protocol. It is also used in contrast with WAN (wide area network) which spans for much larger geographical areas.
The Ethernet protocol standards describe a lot of aspects of network communication as well as frame format, frame size, timing, and encoding. Ethernet telling, how networked devices can format data for transmission to other network devices on the same network segment, and also describe how to put that data out on the network connection.
The Ethernet is a contention-based method of networking. A contention-based method means that any device can try to transmit data across the shared medium whenever it has data to send. The Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) process is used in half-duplex Ethernet LANs to detect and resolve collisions. Today’s Ethernet LANs use full-duplex switches, which allow multiple devices to send and receive simultaneously with no collisions.
The OSI model describes separately both the data link layer function and the physical standards of the media. The Ethernet standard define both the Layer 2 protocols and the Layer 1 technologies. According to specification, It supports different media, bandwidths, and other Layer 1 and 2 variations. The basic frame format and address scheme are the same for all types of Ethernet.