Lab-Building an Ethernet Crossover Cable, connecting two PCs one to one

cross_cable

Objectives of the lab

1: Analyze Ethernet Cabling Standards and Pinouts

2: Build an Ethernet Crossover Cable

3: Test an Ethernet Crossover Cable

4: IP Address Settings on Computer

5: Testing the Connection using Ping Command

Resources Required

  • 2 RJ-45 connectors
  • RJ-45 crimping tool
  • Category 5 or 5e cable length.
  • Wire cutter
  • Wire stripper
  • Ethernet cable tester (optional)
  • 2 PCs (Windows 7 or 10 installed)

1: Analyze Ethernet Cabling Standards and Pinouts

The TIA/EIA has UTP cabling standards for using in LAN environments. TIA/EIA has two standards 568-A and 568-B. These are the two standards which are mostly used in LAN cabling. These standards decide which color wire is to be used on which pin. In straight-through cable both ends should be 568A standard but in crossover cable, one end should be 568A and the other end should be 568B. which reverses the send and receive pairs. Crossover cables are normally used to connect same devices like hubs to hubs or switches to switches, but they can also be used to directly connect two hosts to create a simple network.

Step 1: Table for TIA/EIA 568-A standard Ethernet cable.

The following table and diagrams display the color scheme and pinouts, as well as the function of the four pairs of wires used for the 568-A standard.

 

Pin Number Wire Color Wire role
1 White/Green TX +
 2 Green TX –
3 White/Orange RX +
4 Blue Not Used
5 White/Blue Not Used
6 Orange RX –
7 White/Brown Not Used
8 Brown Not Used

Step 2: Table for TIA/EIA 568-B standard Ethernet cable.

 

The following table and diagrams display the color scheme and pinouts, as well as the function of the four pairs of wires used for the 568-B standard.

Pin Number Wire Color Wire role
1 White/Orange TX +
2 Orange TX –
3 White/Green RX +
4 Blue Not Used
5 White/Blue Not Used
  Green RX –
7 White/Brown Not Used
8 Brown Not Used

T-568B

Part 2: Build an Ethernet Crossover Cable

crossover cable                         

In a crossover cable second and third pairs on the RJ-45 connector at one end, reversed at the other

end (see table in step 1 and step 2). The cable pinouts are the 568-A standard on one end and the 568-B

standard on the other end.

 Steps to make a cable

  • Determine the cable length required. Max length is 100 meter and 91 meters
  • Cut off the required piece of cable and using a wire stripper, remove 5.08 cm (2 in.) of the cable jacket from both ends.
  • Hold the four pairs of twisted cables forcefully where the jacket was cut away. reorder the cable pairs into the order of the 568-A wiring standard. Refer to the table in step 1, if necessary.
  • If possible, keep up the twists in the cable; this provides noise cancellation.
  • Flatten, straighten, and line up the wires using your thumb and forefinger and you may be used pencil for this job
  • Make sure that the cable wires are still in the exact order for the 568-A standard. Using your wire cutters, trim the four pairs in a straight line to within 1.25 to 1.9 cm (1/2 to 3/4 in.).
  • Put an RJ-45 connector on the end of your cable, with the spike on the underside pointing downward.
  • Tightly insert the wires into the RJ-45 connector. All wires should be seen at the end of the connector in their proper positions. If the wires are not extending to the end of the connector, take the cable out. Rearrange the wires again, and reinsert the wires back into the RJ-45 connector.
  • If everything is correct, insert the RJ-45 connector with cable into the crimper. Crimp down hard enough to force the contacts on the RJ-45 connector through the insulation on the wires, thus completing the Conducting path.

3: Test an Ethernet Crossover Cable

Many cable testers will test for length and mapping of wires. If the cable tester has a wire map feature, it

verifies which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end.

.Step 2: Connect two PCs together via NIC using your Ethernet crossover cable.

  • Set your PCs with following IP address settings. For example, you have a PC-1 and PC-2. Your IP Address should be set according to the table. The default gateway has no need at the same network so it should be empty.  
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway
PC-1 NIC 192.168.100.1 255.255.255.0 No Need
PC-2 NIC 192.168.100.2 255.255.255.0 No Need

 

  • Using the crossover cable you made before, connect both PCs together via their NICs.

 Part-4: – IP Address Settings on Computer  (Windows 7 or 10)

Step-1: – Open Network and sharing center.

 network and sharing centre

Step-2: – On the network and sharing center window click on change adapter setting. You will see a network sharing window.

Here you should see “ Local Area Connection” or “Ethernet”  right click on that and click on properties

 Local area connection

Step-3: – In this window select “Internet protocol version 4(TCP/IPv4)” and click Properties

IPv4 Properties

Step-4: – Here click used the following IP Address and fill in your own IP and subnet mask click OK and again click ok Now your PC-1 is ready. Do the same with PC-2

IP Address settings

Part-5: – Testing of Connection using Ping Command
  1. Go to “windows command prompt”
  2. In the command prompt of PC-1 enter the following command “ ping 192.168.100.2
  3. Repeat the process and ping from PC-2 to PC-1.
  4. assume IP addressing and the firewall does not issue, your pings should be successful if the cables were properly made.
  5. Ping statistics for IP Address

            Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss)

 Note: The Windows firewall may have to be temporarily disabled for pings to be successful.

 

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