TCP is the protocol that guarantees a reliable communication channel over an unreliable network. When someone sends data from a host to another, packets can be lost, they can arrive at the receiving host out of order, the network can be congested or the receiver node can be overloaded. When we are sending some application data, […]
Transmission Control Protocol accepts data from a stream, divides it into small chunks, and adds a TCP header creating a TCP segment. The TCP segment is then encapsulated into an Internet Protocol datagram (IP datagram) and exchanged with peers. These TCP segments possibly will arrive at their destination out of order. For the original message to be understood by the receiver; […]
The TCP three-way handshake also called the TCP-handshake. Three message handshake and/or SYN SYN-ACK ACK is the method used by TCP set up a TCP/IP connection over an IP based network. TCP’s three-way handshaking is often referred to as SYN, SYN-ACK, ACK technique because there are three messages transmitted by TCP to negotiate and start a TCP session […]
All application processes running on the server are configured to use a different port number. The port can be configured by default or manually, by a network administrator. On the same server cannot have two services assigned the same port number within the same transport layer services. For example, a host running FTP server and […]
Unexplained TCP connections can create a major security risk. They can show that something or someone is connected to the local host. Sometimes it is necessary to know which active TCP connections are open and running on a networked host. Netstat is a useful network tool for checking and verifying those connections. The netstat command […]
There is two types of port are being used in a transport layer, the source ports, and destination ports. The source ports are related to the originating application on the local host. The destination ports are related to the destination application on the remote host. Source Port The source ports are dynamic ports, generated by […]
UDP is a connectionless protocol Which is not a reliable protocol. it means that it has no guarantee to get its destination. Example of this protocol is that when you are sending a non-registered letter or postcard, you put it in the mailbox. Now you are not aware of the availability of the receiver to […]
The fourth layer of OSI model is called Transport Layer. This layer is responsible for end-to-end connectivity, Process to process delivery, error control, flow control etc. It is also called as an end-to-end layer because it provides a point-to-point connection rather than hop-to-hop, between the source host and destination host to transport the services reliably. […]
The Cisco Certified Network Associate – Routing and Switching (CCNA – Routing and Switching ) certification title has become the leading entry level network certification. The Cisco Certified Network Associate (Routing and Switching) certification was developed by Cisco to test the knowledge of candidate at networking at entry level. The CCNA – Routing and Switching certification analyzes the candidate’s ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size networks.
The exam is scheduled for 120 minutes and has 50-60 questions on it. The people whose language is not English can get additional 30 mints.
During the exam, no outside reference materials are allowed for candidates. The following topics are general guidelines for the content. In order to improve reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity purposes, the below guidelines may change at any time without notice.
- Operation of IP Data Networks
- LAN Switching Technologies
- IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6)
- IP Routing Technologies
- IP Services
- Network Device Security
- WAN Technologies
CCNA Routing and Switching certification have many advantages to the employee and employer. These include future-proofing and greater utilization of network capabilities resulting in increased employee productivity and an improved ROI on network investments. The employees get training on the newest hardware and software. So when the employers get a chance to upgrade their hardware and software, their employees will have the tools and skills to hit the ground running when new projects begin.
The CCNA Routing and Switching certification is valid for three years at such time, you will need to recertify.