The fourth layer of OSI model is called Transport Layer. This layer is responsible for end-to-end connectivity, Process to process delivery, error control, flow control etc. It is also called as an end-to-end layer because it provides a point-to-point connection rather than hop-to-hop, between the source host and destination host to transport the services reliably. […]
Today single device can run multiple applications and provide multiple services such as email, web, video, audio and instant messaging. Data from each of these applications are packaged, transported and delivered to the right application on the destination device. The transport layer (Layer 4) of the OSI model accepts data from the application layer and […]
As I say in my previous IPv6 lessons that IPv6 addresses are going to replace IPv4 addresses? The reason is that IPv4 address space is running out. So, the 32-bit IPv4 addresses are not enough to link every device which wants connectivity to the Internet. The IPv6 is 128 bit address which allows approximately, 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456, or […]
The Internet Protocol especially IPv4 is now being used for almost all business and personal digital communications, from data centers to telephones to industrial control systems. Now, the Internet protocols have been adopted for 3G, 4G, and 4G LTE mobile systems and are a serious enabler for the Internet of Things. This time billions of […]
With the Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM), the LAN and WAN segments can be assigned addresses without any waste. As shown the scenarios in Figure 1, the hosts in each of the sub-network will be assigned a valid host address with the range of that subnet and /26 masks. Each of the routers will have […]
Variable length subnet mask (VLSM) is a method that allows network administrators to divide an IP address space into subnets of different sizes, unlike simple same-size Subnetting. Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) means subnetting a subnet. To simplify further, VLSM is the breaking down of IP addresses space into multiple level subnets and allocating it […]
Sometimes a number of sub-networks are required, with less importance on the number of host addresses per sub-network. For example, an organization wants to separate their network traffic based on internal structure or department setup. In this case, the number of subnets is most important in determining how many bits to borrow. Remember the number […]
There are two considerations for planning a network: The number of hosts required for each network. The number of sub-network needed. The table below in the figure displays the details for subnetting a /24 network. Observe how there is an opposite relationship between the number of hosts and the number of subnets. The more bits […]
The Cisco Certified Network Associate – Routing and Switching (CCNA – Routing and Switching ) certification title has become the leading entry level network certification. The Cisco Certified Network Associate (Routing and Switching) certification was developed by Cisco to test the knowledge of candidate at networking at entry level. The CCNA – Routing and Switching certification analyzes the candidate’s ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size networks.
The exam is scheduled for 120 minutes and has 50-60 questions on it. The people whose language is not English can get additional 30 mints.
During the exam, no outside reference materials are allowed for candidates. The following topics are general guidelines for the content. In order to improve reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity purposes, the below guidelines may change at any time without notice.
- Operation of IP Data Networks
- LAN Switching Technologies
- IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6)
- IP Routing Technologies
- IP Services
- Network Device Security
- WAN Technologies
CCNA Routing and Switching certification have many advantages to the employee and employer. These include future-proofing and greater utilization of network capabilities resulting in increased employee productivity and an improved ROI on network investments. The employees get training on the newest hardware and software. So when the employers get a chance to upgrade their hardware and software, their employees will have the tools and skills to hit the ground running when new projects begin.
The CCNA Routing and Switching certification is valid for three years at such time, you will need to recertify.