• IPv4 Address Octet Boundaries

    Each interface on a router which is connected to a network is required IP address and subnet mask. The IP address and subnet mask are used to identify the specific broadcast domain. Remember that we have already learned the following topics in the previous chapter: Introduction to IP address IPv4 Addresses IPv4 Host and Network […]

  • Broadcast Domains

    Broadcast domains are a logical parts or divisions of a computer network in which a broadcast is forwarded. In a broadcast domain, all the devices can be reached via broadcast at the datalink layer (OSI Layer 2). A Broadcast Domain consists of all the devices that will receive any broadcast packet; originating from any device within the […]

  • Introduction to Subnetting

    Subnetting is used to design, implement and manage an effective IP addressing plan. It is used to partition a single physical network into more than one smaller logical sub-networks (subnets). An IPv4 address contains a network portion and a host portion. These two portions of addressing allow for basic network groupings that facilitate in routing […]

  • Traceroute (tracert) – Testing the Path

    The Ping utility is only used to test connectivity between two hosts but traceroute provide information about the details of devices between the two hosts. Traceroute (tracert) is an also a utility that generates a list of hops that were successfully reached beside the path. The list provided by traceroute provide important information for verification […]

  • Ping

    Short for Packet InterNet Groper, Ping is a utility that uses ICMP echo request and echoes reply messages to verify connectivity between hosts. Ping can be used with both IPv4 and IPv6 hosts.To test connectivity to another host on a local network or remote network, an echo request is sent to the address of destination host […]

  • ICMPv6 Router and Neighbor Solicitation and Advertisement Messages

    The informational and error messages found in ICMPv6 are very similar to the messages implemented by ICMPv4. But, ICMPv6 has new and improved features and functionality which not found in ICMPv4. ICMPv6 messages are encapsulated in IPv6. ICMPv6 has four new protocols as part of the Neighbor Discovery Protocol. Messaging between an IPv6 enabled router […]

  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

    Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is the key network layer protocol that implements the TCP/IP protocol suite. An IP is not a reliable protocol, the TCP/IP suite does provide for messages to be sent in the event of certain errors. These messages are sent using the services of ICMP and contain information for a status of the […]

  • IPv6 Multicast Addresses

    Both IPv4 and IPv6 multicast addresses are similar in function. A multicast address is used to send a single packet to one or more destinations. Prefix FF00::/8 is reserved for multicast IPv6 addresses. Multicast addresses can only be destination addresses. There are two types of IPv6 multicast addresses: Assigned multicast Solicited node multicast Assigned Multicast […]

  • Configuring IPv6 Address on Cisco Router

    Device Interface IPv6 Address Prefix Length Default Gateway Router0 G0/0 2001:0DB8:C21A:1:: 64 N/A G0/0 FE80::1   Link-Local S0/0/0 2001:0DB8:C21A:2:: 64 N/A S0/0/0 Dynamic Link-Local   Link-Local Router1 G0/0 2001:0DB8:C21A:3:: 64 N/A G0/0 FE80::1   Link-Local S0/0/0 2001:0DB8:C21A:2::1 64 N/A S/0/0/0 Dynamic Link-Local   Link-Local   Laptop0 NIC 2001:0DB8:C21A:1::2 64 FE80::1 Laptop1 NIC 2001:0DB8:C21A:1::3 64 FE80::1 […]

  • EUI-64 Process and Randomly Generated IPv6 Addresses

    When SLAAC or SLAAC with stateless RA message is received to a client, the client is required to generate its own Interface ID. The client gets the prefix portion of the IPv6 address from the RA message but the RA message not held the information about the interface ID for the client. There for the […]

  • Router Advertisement (RA) Messages

    The RA message option 1, SLAAC is the default option for the router. The router interface can be configured for three options: SLAAC – Which says I’m all you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)” SLAAC and DHCPv6 stateless–My information are here but you also need to get other information like DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 […]

  • Configuration of Global IPv6 Unicast Address

    Static Configuration – Router Most of the configuration commands in the Cisco routers are similar for both IPv4 and IPv6. The only difference is the use of ipv6 in place of IP within the commands. The command to configure an IPv6 global unicast address on any interface is “ipv6 address ipv6-address/prefix-length “ Example Configuration on Router fa0/0 and fa0/1 interfaces […]

  • Structure of Global IPv6 Addresses

    Currently, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and The Internet Committee for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) allocates IPv6 address blocks to the five RIRs. Only global unicast addresses with the first three bits of 001 or 2000::/3 are being assigned to various Internet address registries. This is only very small portion of available IPv6 addresses. A […]

  • The IPv6 Unicast Addresses

    We already learn about IPv4 unicast addresses. A unicast address is the most common form of an IP address and is assigned to one network interface.  An IPv6 unicast address uniquely identifies an interface on an IPv6-enabled device. This address used for one to one communication in a network. A packet sent to a unicast […]

  • The IPv6 Address Types and Prefix Length

    The IPv6 Address Types There are three basic IPv6 address types: Unicast – A unicast address is the most common form of an IP address and is assigned to one network interface We already learn IPv4 unicast addresses.  An IPv6 unicast address uniquely identifies an interface on an IPv6-enabled device. For communication over IPv6, source IPv6 […]

  • IPv6 Address Representation

    IPv6 addresses are 128 bits in length and represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits each, each group representing 16 bits. The address can be written in either lowercase or uppercase. Preferred Format As we know that IPv6 address is 128 bit and in 8 groups so the preferred format for writing an IPv6 address […]

  • IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence

    With a growing Internet population, a limited IPv4 address space, issues with NAT and an Internet of Everything, the time has come to begin the transition to IPv6. But due to the size of the Internet, it is not possible to migrate IPv4 addresses to IPv6 addresses in a synchronized manner. Because some IPv4 addresses […]

  • The Need of IPv6

    It’s a well-known fact that the Internet is growing at an astronomical speed due to the flexibility of its design. The devices we want to communicate with has grown from a collection of static devices to mobile devices mostly connected on the internet. The IP version currently used in the internet and networks is IP […]

  • Special User IPv4 Addresses

    There are many addresses that are used for special purposes. Just like the network address and broadcast address that cannot be assigned to hosts. There are many special addresses that can be allotted to hosts, but with limitations on how those hosts can interact within the network. Loopback addresses ( /8 or to […]

  • Classless Addressing

    As we learn that all IP addresses have a network and host portion. In classful addressing, the network portion ends on one of the splitting dots in the address. On the other words, Classful addressing divides an IP address into the Network portion and Host portions along octet boundaries. Classful address uses a fixed subnet mask which is /8, /16 […]



  • The Cisco Certified Network Associate – Routing and Switching (CCNA – Routing and Switching ) certification title has become the leading entry level network certification. The Cisco Certified Network Associate (Routing and Switching) certification was developed by Cisco to test the knowledge of candidate at networking at entry level. The CCNA – Routing and Switching certification analyzes the candidate’s ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size networks.

  • The exam is scheduled for 120 minutes and has 50-60 questions on it. The people whose language is not English can get additional 30 mints.

  • During the exam, no outside reference materials are allowed for candidates. The following topics are general guidelines for the content. In order to improve reflect the contents of the exam and for clarity purposes, the below guidelines may change at any time without notice.

    • Operation of IP Data Networks
    • LAN Switching Technologies
    • IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6)
    • IP Routing Technologies
    •  IP Services
    • Network Device Security
    • Troubleshooting
    • WAN Technologies
  • CCNA Routing and Switching certification have many advantages to the employee and employer. These include future-proofing and greater utilization of network capabilities resulting in increased employee productivity and an improved ROI on network investments. The employees get training on the newest hardware and software. So when the employers get a chance to upgrade their hardware and software, their employees will have the tools and skills to hit the ground running when new projects begin.

  • The CCNA Routing and Switching certification is valid for three years at such time, you will need to recertify.

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